Heat killed whole cell Mycobacterium obuense completed phase II pancreatic cancer clinical trial


Heat killed Mycobacterium obuense is claimed to stimulate Th1 immune response against tumours and down regulate Th2 responses  [1]. It acts as a Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) acting on γδ T-cells, granulocytes, and antigen-presenting cells (such as dendritic cells) [2, 3]. Intradermally delivered Mycobacterium obuense has recently undergone a phase II clinical trial in advanced pancreatic cancer patients demonstrating safety and showed promising signs of efficacy that need to be confirmed in a phase III clincal trial [4]. A systemic immune activation against pancreatic cancer is promising as these tumours are difficult for the clinician to manipulate/ manually inject.




  1. Charles Akle Satvinder Mudan John Grange (2013). Cancer therapy, US patent US13396866 , 2013-12-31 .
  2. Fowler DW, Copier J, Wilson N, Dalgleish AG, Bodman-Smith MD. Mycobacteria activate γδ T-cell anti-tumour responses via cytokines from type 1 myeloid dendritic cells: a mechanism of action for cancer immunotherapy. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2012 Apr;61(4):535-47. doi: 10.1007/s00262-011-1121-4. PubMed PMID: 22002242.
  3. Bazzi S, Modjtahedi H, Mudan S, Akle C, Bahr GM. Analysis of the immunomodulatory properties of two heat-killed mycobacterial preparations in a human whole blood model. Immunobiology. 2015 Dec;220(12):1293-304. doi: 10.1016/j.imbio.2015.07.015. PubMed PMID: 26253276.
  4. Dalgleish AG, Stebbing J, Adamson DJ, Arif SS, Bidoli P, Chang D, Cheeseman S, Diaz-Beveridge R, Fernandez-Martos C, Glynne-Jones R, Granetto C, Massuti B, McAdam K, McDermott R, Martín AJ, Papamichael D, Pazo-Cid R, Vieitez JM, Zaniboni A, Carroll KJ, Wagle S, Gaya A, Mudan SS. Randomised, open-label, phase II study of gemcitabine with and without IMM-101 for advanced pancreatic cancer. Br J Cancer. 2016 Sep 27;115(7):789-96. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2016.271. PubMed PMID: 27599039


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